MEANING AND NATURE OF RESOURCES
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MEANING AND NATURE OF RESOURCES

MEANING AND NATURE OF RESOURCES Evolution of Resource Consciousness In the past through many centuries man lived under social controls. They lived under tyrannies of priests, military dictators and kings. At times, certain privileged groups enjoyed personal freedom, as did Roman citizens in the Roman Empire. But majority of the people lived as slaves, serfs and as subjects.-

MEANING AND NATURE OF RESOURCES

Evolution of Resource Consciousness

In the past through many centuries man lived under social controls. They lived under tyrannies of priests, military dictators and kings. At times, certain privileged groups enjoyed personal freedom, as did Roman citizens in the Roman Empire. But majority of the people lived as slaves, serfs and as subjects.-

Then came the age of great discoveries and inventions. Man acquired better control over nature. They began to utilize it more vigorously for their own benefits. With this change also came a growing belief in the rights and powers of the individual. Through evolution, as well as, through revolution the personal freedom of man was established.

In the economic field also individual freedom could be noticed. Governmental control over business enterprises was abolished. The policy of 'laissez faire', 'free trade' and 'free enterprise' came in.

The little man tried and tried hard. In a pursuit of individual interest, individual energies and drives led to an amazing expansion of economic activities. They led to an unthinkable rise in production and standard of living. It was believed that (i) the best way to raise production was to allow private business enterprises to pursue their selfish interests, and (ii) that free competition would bring about a harmony of social and private interests.

These ideologies of economics dominated the enlightened world almost till the end of the nineteenth century. Sometime in early 1890's the famous economist Alfred Marshall broke away from this trend of economic thought. Later he was supported by Pigou and more vigorously by Lord J.M. Keynes.

Marshall in his famous ''Principles'-' pointed out that the individual interest often differs from the social or governmental interest. The pursuit of individual interest does not always assure common 'weal'. The difference of interest lies in respect of their concern for 'national resources,' particularly in respect of the basic assets of the society, such as soil, forest minerals, water-bodies, etc.

Business is market-minded. A timber trader's interest lies in indiscriminate feeling of trees to get maximum timber from a leased forest area. He hardly thinks about the possible effect of such ruthless destruction of forest on soil erosion or climate and its consequence on the economy of the entire region. So, for safeguarding as well as for developing these basic assets viz., soil, forest, minerals, water, health and education, etc., some sort of public policy is necessary. Often they require huge program extended over many years, and in the meantime, demand enormous expenditure without-immediate return.

 

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