Step by Step Process of DNA Replication
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Step by Step Process of DNA Replication

A cell cannot divide and go under meiosis or mitosis without having its DNA duplicate. This process is also known as DNA replication, which consists of different complicated steps that involves DNA Polymerase, DNA ligase, nucleases, lagging strands, leading strands, Okazaki fragments, RNA primers and many others. This article will talk about the different steps that involve with DNA replication.

1. The starting point of the replication process is when the hydrogen bonds break down in bases of two antiparallel strands. Chains that are rich in Adenine and Thymine are the location where splitting occurs, due to have 3 bonds. The enzyme responsible for the splitting of two strands is called the helicase. While the origin of replication is the starting point where the splitting occurs, which produces the replication fork. 

2. Next, RNA primase binds to the starting point of the 3'-5' parent chain. It attracts RNA nucleotides that binds to the DNA nucleotides of the parent strand because of the bonds between the bases. In addition, they are also the ones responsible for starting the binding of DNA nucleotides. 

3. The next process is called the elongation process, but there are two different parts. The first part is the 5' - 3' template which produces the 3'5 daughter strand which is also known as the leading strand. The reason why it is called the leading strand is because it allows the DNA polymerase to read and add nucleotides to the template, which elongates it. On the other hand, the second part involves the 3' - 5' template which doesn't allow the DNA polymerase to be read. The strand produced by this template is called the lagging strand, where as RNA primers are added by the RNA primase. The difference between two RNA primers is known as the Okazaki fragments. 

4. DNA Pol I -exonuclease is the one responsible for reading fragments and eliminates the added RNA primers. This then allows the DNA polymerase and DNA ligase to close the gaps between the RNA primers. The DNA polymerase adds nucleotides to the gaps, while the DNA ligase add phosphate into the gaps to close it.

5. Termination is the last step which is when the last RNA primer is removed, meaning the DNA polymerase doesn't have any gaps to seal anymore. This means that the last RNA primer ends the replication process, also called as the telomeres. Telomeres are the ends of chromosomal DNA that aren't able to coded. In each cycle of DNA replication, part of a telomere is removed. 

6. The end of the replication happens when the DNA replication repairs recognized errors that happened during replication, such as having wrong nucleotides. This is the point where no more replication is possible and the DNA replication has been completed.

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